Chemical Laboratory Reaches NSF and AMECA Approval

Jan 8, 2013

Link Engineering's chemical laboratory reaches NSF and AMECA approval.

Update (01/07/13): Link Engineering’s Chemical Laboratory becomes NSF- and AMECA-approved as a third-party testing facility per SAE J2975:2011.

Late last year, Link Engineering completed the formal process to become the first independent testing facility in the United States to meet NSF and AMECA requirements regarding chemical evaluation for heavy metals and asbestos fibers per SAE J2975:2011.

These approvals confirm Link’s ability to (a) meet all the applicable requirements of the ISO 17025:2005 for testing laboratories using an ILAC signatory of the Mutual Recognition Agreement; (b) demonstrate managerial and technical expertise to conduct testing per SAE J2975:2011 on a regular basis; and (c) comply with the specific requirement of both independent registrars for heavy metals on friction materials per the applicable California and Washington state rules and requirements.

For a formal test quote please contact John Ligerakis at

For technical questions please contact Radek Markiewicz at

Please click here to view a .pdf brochure file which describes Link’s chemical evaluation capabilities.

Original News Release:

“It was a natural extension to our ISO 17025-accredited listing of testing services specialized and focused on the automotive industry” commented Tim Duncan – Vice-President of Global Testing Operations for Link Engineering Co. He went on to confirming that “Link’s approach to implementing this brand-new testing service was to establish a single-source process, from debris extraction to final report indicating the level of conformance to the Washington and California state rules and regulations for copper, heavy metals, and asbestos traces.”

Automakers, wholesalers, dealers, distributors, and manufacturers of friction materials selling product into the U.S. can use a single-source supplier to obtain/secure their AMECA friction test for edge code and environmental verification of state requirements for regulated metals and asbestos. Supplying Link Engineering Company’s testing laboratory with two sets of brake pads provides all that is needed to complete both evaluations and compliance testing -friction level, heavy metals, and asbestos.

SAE J2975 friction material testing and its report with the environmental letter coding (A, B, or N depending upon the percent-by-weight values covered on the states’ rules) per SAE J866 are valuable tools to:

– determine the level of compliance to state (California and Washington) rules and regulations for heavy metals and asbestiform fiber content
– compare different friction material formulations, production batches, or manufacturing sites
– support the declaration of conformity requirements for vehicle manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, installers, and friction material suppliers

Link’s debris extraction per SAE J2975 drilling and layout parameters using CNC automated drilling is standardized and efficient for common friction material’s applications (FMSI’s D-numbers), ensures uniform and repeatable drilling to minimize results variability from different drilling techniques, and provides a chain-of-custody and traceability to the original sample while eliminating the delays from outsourced drilling (or manufacturer’s internal drilling process).

The latest-technology CEM™ microwave digestion for rapid, high-pressure, high-temperature preparation of samples for ICP-OES uses encapsulated vessels with acid mix per SAE/EPA standard method and relies on a 1,200 W; 2,45 MHz high-frequency; 800 psi (54 atm), and 240 °C system. Link’s Chemical Laboratory’s microwave performs real-time monitoring, automated cycle, and fixed digestion time.

The brand-new ThermoScientific™ inductively coupled plasma and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for simultaneous analysis of large number of trace elements includes: an auto-sampling system for automated batch operation (including quality control blanks and spikes for each analyte) and a charge-injection device with solid-state camera with large dynamic range and dual-wavelength measurement capabilities. To detect Chromium VI (Cr+6) Link uses alkaline digestion and an absorption spectrophotometer unit.

Asbestiform fiber detection uses a Nikon™ polarized light microscopy (EPA-PLM) with a high-resolution digital imaging system and control software, a 1,000-point-count techniques with birefringence and dispersion staining techniques, and documents the fiber finding with digital pictures as part of final test report

Lastly, our international network of testing facilities allows local interaction with customers outside the U.S.

Single-source for entire testing to support declaration of conformity (self-certification) without dealing with multiple laboratories and duplicate logistics and shipping costs

Entire sample preparation (coupon for friction test and debris for chemical element measurements) and testing process within Link to avoid variation due to different sample (and debris) preparations

Friction and chemical laboratories specialized on friction material testing and measurements

The two states currently with limits and future bans on heavy metals and asbestiform fibers on friction materials are California and Washington.

The industry and different organizations (including the Brake Manufacturers Council) are cooperating with state ecology departments to educate the public and to gain consensus with federal agencies for a comprehensive endorsement of current state rules.

Antimony, nickel, and zinc, will be initially measured and monitored, but not regulated.

Link Engineering is a global testing system and third-party testing service supplier for automotive, commercial vehicle, rail, and aircraft brake, wheel-end, and suspension systems. Founded in 1935, Link has testing facilities in the U.S., Brazil, China, Germany, and South Korea. Link Engineering provides testing in-vehicle, inertia dynamometers, and sample testing systems to automakers, tier-1, tier-2, and aftermarket suppliers.

Link Engineering’s Chemical Evaluation laboratory in Dearborn, MI is accredited to ISO 17025:2005 with SAE J2975:2011 on its scope, meeting the requirements for third-party testing laboratories per the current Washington state Better Brakes Rule. Link Engineering’s Laboratory is approved by AMECA. For more information and to access actual forms regarding the initial baseline reporting to meet the Washington requirement due January 1st, 2013, please visit

For further details and to coordinate testing please call us at +1-734-453-0800 or email us at

Link Engineering Company – Chemical Evaluation Laboratory

Dearborn, MI

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Type of TestTest HighlightsEquipment UsedExample Procedures
Chemical TestingMeasurement of copper, asbestos and other elements in brake friction materialsICP-OES / PLMJ2975
Materials TestingPhysical properties including quality control for friction, wear, compressive strain, shear strength, corrosion resistance, swell and growthChase Machine / Compressibility Machine/ Shear Machine / Corrosion Chamber / Environmental Chamber / OvenJ661, ISO 6310, ISO 6311, ISO 6312, ABNT NBR 9301, ABNT NBR 5505, ABNT NBR 5537, ASTM B117
Frequency ResponseComponent Frequency ResponseLaser Vibrometer Test StandSAE J2933, J3001, J2598, L-4375
Structural Fatigue and
Breaking strength, cyclic fatigueServo Hydraulics, Torque FlexJ2995, C419, C441, GMW18022
Caliper FingerprintingCaliper characteristics such as knockback, rollback, fluid displacement, deflection...Caliper Test Bench / Brake DynamometerL-4177, PF.90257
Brake Drag and DTVResidual drag, disc thickness variation, brake feel and vehicle fuel mileageOff Brake Drag Stand / Brake DynamometerJ2923, GMW14926, GMW14351, PF.90257, L-13080
PerformanceHydraulic, air and electric brakes, friction levels, stopping distance, corrosion, cleanability, brake torque variation, rotor cracking, regulation, stability control, coastdownBrake Dynamometer, Model 4000 DASJ2784, J2928 IS026867, GMW14985, PF.90210, PF.90244, L-405, FMVSS 121, FMVSS 122, FMVSS 105, FMVSS 135, FMVSS 126, FMVSS 136, ECE R13H, AMS
WearRotor wear, drum wear, lining wear, DTV, durability, city traffic, suburban trafficBrake Dynamometer, Model 4000 DASJ2707, USCT, L-423, PF.90244, Los Angeles, Detroit, Phoenix, Birmingham, Marquette
NVHBrake squeal during drag and decel events at different temperatures, pressure and torque levelsNVH Brake DynamometerJ2521, L420, 1430, GMW17427, PF. 90244
Brake EmissionsBrake dust particle size, count, concentration and massBrake DynamometerWLTP, CARB, Duty cycle


Type of TestTest HighlightsEquipment UsedExample Procedures
Wheel BearingWater intrusion and durability when exposed to mud and saltBearing Test StandLINK Hub and Bearing, GMW16306, GMW16310
Passenger car, sport/performance and open bed vehicle wheel bearing spallingBearing Test StandGMW16311, GMW16308, GMW16309
Brinelling resistance validates long-term reliability/durabilityBearing Test StandGMW16305
Rotary fatigue lifeRotary Fatigue MachineGMW16325
Wheel HubRotary bending fatigue life characteristicsRotary Fatigue MachineGMW14249
Hub/BearingEvaluate hub and bearing performance, durability, seals and NVH when exposed to extreme environmental effects such as temperature and mud/salt solutionBearing Test Stand/Rotary FatigueTIP-000037A, LINK Hub and Bearing, SAE J1095, LINK Impact
Hub FatigueHub fatigue using biaxial loadingBiaxial Test StandSAE J2562


Type of TestTest HighlightsEquipment UsedExample Procedures
ChemicalEvaluates filiform corrosion on painted aluminum wheels and painted aluminum trimICP-OESASTM E3061
Wheel Corrosion and CoatingsEvaluates filiform corrosion, tape adhesion, degree of rusting on painted aluminum wheels and painted aluminum trimCorrosion ChamberSAE J2635, ASTM B368, ISO 9227,
ISO 2409, ASTM D3599,
ABNT NBR 11003, ASTM D610,
ASTM D1654
Wheel FatigueLoad simulation test of aluminum alloy wheelsBiaxialBMW QV36026, SAE J2562, FORD
L-307, GMW14340
Dynamic Cornering Fatigue and Dynamic Radial Fatigue - Steel wheelsEccentric Mass and RadialABNT NBR 6750
Rotational fatigue, Radial load fatigue and biaxial load fatigue of steel and aluminum wheelsEccentric Mass, Radial and BiaxialABNT NBR 6751
Dynamic Cornering Fatigue and Dynamic Radial Fatigue and Impact resistance of temporary use and normal highway use aluminum wheelsEccentric Mass, Radial and Drop TestABNT NBR 6752
Wheel Radial FatigueRadialGMW14909
Wheel ImpactWheel Inboard Rim Flange Vertical ImpactDrop TestGMW15321
Wheel radial impactDrop TestCETP 04.04-L300
Wheel Lateral ImpactDrop TestGMW14910, SAE J175
Wheel StiffnessFrequency Response Function (FRF)Frequency ResponseGMW14876
Deformation of the wheelServo HydraulicsJ2315
Center cap heat
Center Cap deformation under elevated temperature conditionsBench TestBrake Heat Center Cap


Type of TestTest HighlightsEquipment UsedExample Procedures
Parking ForcesAllows proper sizing of power steering componentsForce and MotionLINK Parking Forces
Tire FootprintDetermines the contact patch geometryForce and MotionTire Footprint
Tire Modeling
Determine tire inertia which is then used Ftire and other models and simulationsInertia MachineLINK Tire Inertial Properties
On-center parking effort test for Ftire inputForce and MotionSWP
Determine static stiffness (X, Y, Z, Alpha) for Ftire inputStatic Stiffness MachineSAE Static Stiffness
Determine how the tire envelopes an obstacleCleat MachineJ2731
Measure the forces and moments generated at a high frequency response spindle when the tire impacts a cleatCleat MachineJ2730
Braking and Cornering PerformanceDetermine the straight line braking performance of a tireForce and MotionJ2673
Determine the free rolling cornering properties of a tireForce and MotionSAE TIME, J1987, SWP
Measure the combined cornering and braking performance of a tireForce and MotionJ2675
Tire StiffnessMeasure rolling vertical stiffness of a tire at speedRolling Vertical Stiffness
Rolling ResistanceMeasure tire rolling resistance using a drumForce and Motion, Rolling ResistanceJ1269, J2452
Tire WearAssess tire wear in the labForce and MotionLINK Wear Test
Tire NVHTest tire sizzle, cornering noise, pass-by noise, steering wheel dither, freeze crack impacts, high speed uniformity and imbalance sensitivityForce and Motion, Dynamometer, Model 4000 DASNoise, Vibration, Harshness